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Agonists of galanin subtype 2 receptor may prevent pancreatic cancer and agonists of angiotensin II type 2 receptor may prevent colorectal cancer

Published date

June 24, 2024

Abstract


"Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a dreadful disease with poor prognosis. While the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is better than that of PDAC, it still is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recently, a (methyl)lanthionine-stabilized, highly receptor-specific agonist of galanin subtype 2 (GAL2) receptor inhibited the growth of GAL2 receptor-expressing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, a lanthionine-constrained agonist of angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor inhibited PDX of colorectal cancer in mice. Stimulation of GAL2 receptor may modulate immune surveillance and inhibits PDAC via cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis. Consistent with GAL2 receptor-mediated tumor inhibition, for PDAC, survival is much higher for patients with high GAL2 receptor expression. Importantly, a (methyl)lanthionine-stabilized GAL2 receptor-specific agonist enhances expression of GAL2 receptor, not only in PDAC-PDX but also in healthy tissue indicating therapeutic and preventive potentials for GAL2 receptor agonists. AT2R is interacting with four tumor suppressor proteins, Src homology phosphatase 1, Src homology phosphatase 2, Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger protein and Microtuble-Associated Scaffold Protein1, the latter also known as Angiotensin-II type 2 receptor-Interacting Protein. Pathways linked to these tumor suppressor proteins may enhance immune surveillance, prevent carcinogenesis, counter proliferation and stimulate apoptosis. Taken together, current data are prompting the hypothesis of a prophylactic treatment option with stable, specific and safe agonists of GAL2 receptor and AT2 receptor to prevent the emergence of pancreatic and colorectal cancer in individuals at risk."

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