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Autocrine proteinase-activated receptor signaling in PC3 prostate cancer cells

Published date

June 29, 2023


"Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by limited n-terminal proteolysis. PARs are highly expressed in many cancer cells, including prostate cancer (PCa), and regulate various aspects of tumor growth and metastasis. Specific activators of PARs in different physiological and pathophysiological contexts remain poorly defined. In this study, we examined the androgen-independent human prostatic cancer cell line PC3 and find the functional expression of PAR1 and PAR2, but not PAR4. Using genetically encoded PAR cleavage biosensors, we showed that PC3 cells secrete proteolytic enzymes that cleave PARs and trigger autocrine signaling. CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of PAR1 and PAR2 combined with microarray analysis revealed genes that are regulated through this autocrine signaling mechanism. We found several genes that are known PCa prognostic factors or biomarker to be differentially expressed in the PAR1-knockout (KO) and PAR2-KO PC3 cells. We further examined PAR1 and PAR2 regulation of PCa cell proliferation and migration and found that absence of PAR1 promotes PC3 cell migration and suppresses cell proliferation, whereas PAR2 deficiency showed opposite effects. Overall, these results demonstrate that autocrine signaling through PARs is an important regulator of PCa cell function."

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