"Background: We investigated the effects of factors including age, birth year (cohort) and diagnosis year (period) on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence trends in Golestan, Northeast of Iran, 2004-2018.
Methods: We obtained data on incidence cases of CRC from the Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry by sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated using the World standard population and presented per 100,000 person-years. We calculated the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) fitted age-period-cohort (APC) models to assess non-linear period and cohort effects as incidence rate ratios (IRRs).
Results: Overall, 2839 new cases of CRC (ASR = 13.7) were registered in the GPCR over 2004-2018. Our findings suggested significantly increasing trends in CRC incidence rates from 2004 to 2018 (EAPC = 3.7; 95%CI: 0.4, 7.1), with the greatest changes occurring in rural women (EAPC= 4.7; 95%CI: 0.4, 9.2). We observed a strong cohort effect with a consistent increase in the IRR across successive birth cohorts, starting with the oldest birth cohort (1924) (IRR= 0.1 versus the reference birth cohort of 1955) through to the most recent cohort born in 1983 (IRR= 1.9). The largest cohort effects were found among rural females (IRR = 0.0, and IRR = 2.5 for the oldest and the youngest birth cohorts vs. the reference birth cohort, respectively).
Conclusion: The increasing trends in CRC rates in Golestan are largely driven by generational changes in exposure to underlying risk factors. Further investigations are warranted to deliver effective prevention strategies for the control of CRC in Golestan."
Fatemeh Ghasemi-Kebria, Nastaran Jafari-Delouie, Shahryar Semnani, Abdolreza Fazel, Arash Etemadi, Alireza Norouzi, Reza Khandoozi, Sima Besharat, Nesa Shokouhifar, Honyehsadat Mirkarimi, SeyyedMehdi Sedaghat, Mohsen Mansoury, Mahshid Mehrjerdian, Elisabete Weiderpass, Gholamreza Roshandel, Freddie Bray, Reza Malekzadeh