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Coronavirus Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Utilizes Chemokine Interleukin-8 to Facilitate Viral Replication by Regulating Ca2+ Flux

Published date

May 29, 2023


"Chemokine production by epithelial cells is crucial for neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation during viral infection. However, the effect of chemokine on epithelia and how chemokine is involved in coronavirus infection remains to be fully understood. Here, we identified an inducible chemokine interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8), which could promote coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection in African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero) and Lilly Laboratories cell-porcine kidney 1 epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). IL-8 deletion restrained cytosolic calcium (Ca2+), whereas IL-8 stimulation improved cytosolic Ca2+. The consumption of Ca2+ restricted PEDV infection. PEDV internalization and budding were obvious reductions when cytosolic Ca2+ was abolished in the presence of Ca2+ chelators. Further study revealed that the upregulated cytosolic Ca2+ redistributes intracellular Ca2+. Finally, we identified that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) signaling was crucial for enhancive cytosolic Ca2+ and PEDV infection. To our knowledge, this study is the first to uncover the function of chemokine IL-8 during coronavirus PEDV infection in epithelia. PEDV induces IL-8 expression to elevate cytosolic Ca2+, promoting its infection. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL-8 in PEDV infection and suggest that targeting IL-8 could be a new approach to controlling PEDV infection. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric coronavirus that caused severe economic losses worldwide, and more effort is needed to develop economical and efficient vaccines to control or eliminate this disease. The chemokine interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) is indispensable for the activation and trafficking of inflammatory mediators and tumor progression and metastasis. This study evaluated the effect of IL-8 on PEDV infection in epithelia. We found that IL-8 expression improved cytosolic Ca2+ in epithelia, facilitating PEDV rapid internalization and egress. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-SOC signaling was activated by IL-8, releasing the intracellular Ca2+ stores from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These findings provide a better understanding of the role of IL-8 in PEDV-induced immune responses, which will help develop small-molecule drugs for coronavirus cure."

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