β2-Adrenergic Receptor Expression and Intracellular Signaling in B Cells Are Highly Dynamic during Collagen-Induced Arthritis
"The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has either a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effect, depending on the stage of arthritis. In the past, treatment of arthritic B cells with a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-ADR) agonist has been shown to attenuate arthritis. In this study, the expression and signaling of β2-ADR in B cells during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated to provide an explanation of why only B cells from arthritic mice are able to improve CIA. Splenic B cells were isolated via magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Adrenergic receptors on B cells and intracellular β2-ADR downstream molecules (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK-2), β-Arrestin 2, p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)) were analyzed at different time points in naïve and arthritic B cells with and without stimulation of β2-ADR agonist terbutaline by flow cytometry. β2-ADR-expressing B cells increase during CIA without a change in receptor density. Moreover, we observed a profound downregulation of GRK-2 shortly after induction of arthritis and an increase in β-Arrestin 2 only at late stage of arthritis. The second messengers studied (p38, ERK1/2 and CREB) followed a biphasic course, characterized by a reduction at onset and an increase in established arthritis. Stimulation of CIA B cells with the β-ADR agonist terbutaline increased pp38 MAPK independent of the timepoint, while pERK1/2 and pCREB were enhanced only in the late phase of arthritis. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and CREB in the late phase of arthritis was associated with increased IL-10 produced by B10 cells. The change of β2-ADR expression and signaling during sustained inflammation might be an integral part of the switch from pro- to anti-inflammatory action of sympathetic mechanisms in late arthritis."