Deciphering the signaling mechanisms of β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 in regulation of cancer cell cycle and metastasis
"β-Arrestins are ubiquitously expressed intracellular proteins with many functions which interact directly and indirectly with a wide number of cellular partners and mediate downstream signaling. Originally, β-arrestins were identified for their contribution to GPCR desensitization to agonist-mediated activation, followed by receptor endocytosis and ubiquitylation. However, current investigations have now recognized that in addition to GPCR arresting (hence the name arrestin). β-Arrestins are adaptor proteins that control the recruitment, activation, and scaffolding of numerous cytoplasmic signaling complexes and assist in G-protein receptor signaling, thus bringing them into close proximity. They have participated in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and transcription via canonical and noncanonical pathways. Despite their significant recognition in several physiological processes, these activities are also involved in the onset and progression of various cancers. This review delivers a concise overview of the role of β-arrestins with a primary emphasis on the signaling processes which underlie the mechanism of β-arrestins in the onset of cancer. Understanding these processes has important implications for understanding the therapeutic intervention and treatment of cancer in the future."