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Endosomal parathyroid hormone receptor signaling

October 2022


"The canonical model for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activation assumes that stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein signaling upon ligand binding occurs solely at the cell surface and that duration of the stimulation is transient to prevent overstimulation. In this model, GPCR signaling is turned-off by receptor phosphorylation via GPCR kinases (GRKs) and subsequent recruitment of β-arrestins, resulting in receptor internalization into endosomes. Internalized receptors can then recycle back to the cell surface or be trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. However, over the last decade, this model has been extended by discovering that some internalized GPCRs continue to signal via G proteins from endosomes. This is the case for the parathyroid hormone (PTH) type 1 receptor (PTHR), which engages on sustained cAMP signaling from endosomes upon PTH stimulation. Accumulative evidence shows that the location of signaling has an impact on the physiological effects of GPCR signaling. This mini-review discusses recent insights into the mechanisms of PTHR endosomal signaling and its physiological impact."




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