Updated: Sep 22, 2022
"GPR21 is an orphan and constitutively active receptor belonging to the superfamily of G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). GPR21 couples to the Gq family of G proteins and is expressed in macrophages. Studies of GPR21 knock-out mice indicated that GPR21 may be involved in promoting macrophage migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GPR21 in human macrophages, analyzing (i) its involvement in cell migration and cytokine release and (ii) the consequence of its pharmacological inhibition by using the inverse agonist GRA2. THP-1 cells were activated and differentiated into either M1 or M2 macrophages. GPR21 expression was evaluated at gene and protein level, the signalling pathway was investigated by an IP1 assay, and cytokine release by ELISA. Cell migration was detected by the Boyden chamber migration assay, performed on macrophages derived from both the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood monocytes."