Involvement of various chemokine/chemokine receptor axes in trafficking and oriented locomotion of mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis patients
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a specific type of chronic immune-mediated disease in which the immune responses are almost run against the central nervous system (CNS). Despite intensive research, a known treatment for MS disease yet to be introduced. Thus, the development of novel and safe medications needs to be considered for the disease management. Application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an emerging approach was recruited forthe treatment of MS. MSCs have several sources and they can be derived from the umbilical cord, adipose tissue, and bone marrow. Chemokines are low molecular weight proteins that their functional activities are achieved by binding to the cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Chemokine and chemokine receptors are of the most important and effective molecules in MSC trafficking within the different tissues in hemostatic and non-hemostatic circumstances. Chemokine/chemokine receptor axes play a pivotal role in the recruitment and oriented trafficking of immune cells both towards and within the CNS and it appears that chemokine/chemokine receptor signaling may be the most important leading mechanisms in the pathogenesis of MS. In this article, we hypothesized that the chemokine/chemokine receptor axes network have crucial and efficacious impacts on behavior of the MSCs, nonetheless, the exact responsibility of these axes on the targeted tropism of MSCs to the CNS of MS patients yet remained to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we reviewed the ability of MSCs to migrate and home into the CNS of MS patients via expression of various chemokine receptors in response to chemokines expressed by cells of CNS tissue, to provide a great source of knowledge.