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[Inhibitory effect of downregulating G protein-coupled receptor class C group 5 member A expression on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts]

Published date

March 27, 2024

Abstract


"Objective: To clarify the effect and the mechanism of G protein-coupled receptor class C group 5 member A (GPRC5A) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts (GFs), thus to provide a foundation for delving into the role of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) in periodontitis. Methods: Gingival tissue samples were collected from 3 individuals periodontally healthy (health group) and 3 patients with periodontitis (periodontitis group) in Shandong Stomatological Hospital from December 2022 to February 2023. The expressions of GPRC5A of the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. GFs used in this study were isolated from a portion of gingiva for the extraction of impacted teeth in Shandong Stomatological Hospital from December 2022 to February 2023. GFs were isolated with enzymic digestion and transfected with 30, 50 and 80 μmol/L small interfering RNA-GPRC5A (siGPRC5A) or small interfering RNA-negative control (siNC), regarded as the experimental group and the negative control one, respectively. The silencing efficiency of siGPRC5A was evaluated by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Experiments were then conducted using these cells which were divided into four groups of negative control (NC), LPS, siGPRC5A+LPS and siGPRC5A. The mRNA and protein levels of GPRC5A in GFs under 1 mg/L LPS-induced GFs inflammatory state were evaluated by RT-qPCR and Western blotting analysis after GPRC5A knockdown. RT-qPCR was used to detect the gene expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines in GFs induced by LPS, namely, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) after GPRC5A knockdown. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to further investigate the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Results: Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expression of GPRC5A in gingival tissues of periodontitis group (0.132±0.006) increased compared with that in periodontally healthy group (0.036±0.019) (t=8.24, P=0.001). Meanwhile, RT-qPCR results showed that the gene expression levels of GPRC5A at different time point (2, 6, 12, 24 h) in LPS-induced GFs (0.026±0.002, 0.042±0.005, 0.004±0.000, 0.016±0.000) were upregulated compared with those in the NC group (0.004±0.000, 0.004±0.000, 0.002±0.000, 0.007±0.000) (all P<0.001), respectively, and peaked at 6 h. The 50 μmol/L group displayed the most significant decrease in GPRC5A expression (31.16±3.29) compared with that of the NC group (100.00±4.88) (F=297.98, P<0.001). The results of RT-qPCR and Western blotting analysis showed that siGPRC5A (0.27±0.03, 0.71±0.00) suppressed the expressions of GPRC5A at both gene and protein levels, while LPS (1.30±0.10, 1.43±0.03) was able to promote the expressions of GPRC5A compared with those of the NC group (1.00±0.01, 1.00±0.00)(all P<0.001). The siGPRC5A+LPS group (0.39±0.03, 1.06±0.16) also inhibited the increase of GPRC5A at both gene and protein levels induced by LPS (1.30±0.10, 1.43±0.03) (F=208.38, P<0.001; F=42.04, P<0.001). RT-qPCR results showed that the expressions of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PTGS2 at the gene level in LPS group were highly increased compared with those in the NC group (all P<0.001). siGPRC5A significantly suppressed LPS-induced expressions of these inflammatory cytokines in GFs (all P<0.001). Western blotting analysis showed that the levels of p65 and IκBα protein phosphorylation in the LPS group were highly increased compared with those in the NC group, and siGPRC5A could effectively suppressed LPS-induced protein phosphorylation (all P<0.01). Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed that NF-κB p65 in the control group was mainly concentrated in the cytoplasm, and partially translocated to the nucleus under the stimulation of LPS. siGPRC5A was able to inhibit LPS-induced intranuclear translocation of p65 to a certain extent. Conclusions: GPRC5A expression was upregulated in periodontitis, and GPRC5A knockdown inhibited LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, GPRC5A played a role in inflammation regulation by interacting with NF-κB signaling pathway."

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