"Background: Neuroinflammation is a widely studied phenomenon underlying various neurodegenerative diseases. Earlier study demonstrated that pharmacological activation of GPR110 in both central and peripheral immune cells cooperatively ameliorates neuroinflammation caused by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Ethanol consumption has been associated with exacerbation of neurodegenerative and systemic inflammatory conditions. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of single-dose acute ethanol exposure and GPR110 activation on the neuro-inflammation mechanisms. Methods: For in vivo studies, GPR110 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice at 10-12 weeks of age were given an oral gavage of ethanol (3 g/kg) or maltose (5.4 g/kg) at 1-4 h prior to the injection of LPS (1 mg/kg, i.p.) followed by the GPR110 ligand, synaptamide (5 mg/kg). After 2-24 h, brains were collected for the analysis of gene expression by RT-PCR or protein expression by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microglial activation was assessed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. For in vitro studies, microglia and peritoneal macrophages were isolated from adult WT mice and treated with 25 mM ethanol for 4 h and then with LPS (100 ng/ml) followed by 10 nM synaptamide for 2 h for gene expression and 12 h for protein analysis. Results: Single-dose exposure to ethanol by gavage before LPS injection upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the brain and plasma. The LPS-induced Iba-1 expression in the brain was significantly higher after ethanol pretreatment in both WT and GPR110KO mice. GPR110 ligand decreased the mRNA and/or protein expression of these cytokines and Iba-1 in the WT but not in GPR110KO mice. In the isolated microglia and peritoneal macrophages, ethanol also exacerbated the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines which was mitigated at least partially by synaptamide. The expression of an inflammasome marker NLRP3 upregulated by LPS was further elevated with prior exposure to ethanol, especially in the brains of GPR110KO mice. Both ethanol and LPS reduced adenylate cyclase 8 mRNA expression which was reversed by the activation of GPR110. PDE4B expression at both mRNA and protein level in the brain increased after ethanol and LPS treatment while synaptamide suppressed its expression in a GPR110-dependent manner. Conclusion: Single-dose ethanol exposure exacerbated LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The GPR110 ligand synaptamide ameliorated this effect of ethanol by counteracting on the cAMP system, the common target for synaptamide and ethanol, and by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome."