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Minireview: functional roles of tissue kallikrein, kinins, and kallikrein-related peptidases in lung cancer

Published date

July 3, 2023

Abstract


"Despite campaigns and improvements in detection and treatment, lung cancer continues to increase worldwide and represents a major public health problem. One approach to treating patients suffering from lung cancer is to target surface receptors overexpressed on tumor cells, such as GPCR-family kinin receptors, and proteases that control tumor progression, such as kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs). These proteases have been visualized in recent years due to their contribution to the progression of cancers, such as prostate and ovarian cancer, facilitating the invasive and metastatic capacity of tumor cells in these tissues. In fact, KLK3 is the specific prostate antigen, the only tissue-specific biomarker used to diagnose this malignancy. In lung cancer to date, evidence indicates that KLK5, KLK6, KLK8, KLK11, and KLK14 are the major peptidases regulated and involved in its progression. The expression levels of KLKs in this neoplasm are modulated by the secretome of the different cell types present in the tumor microenvironment, the cancer subtype and the tumor stage, among others. Considering the multiple functions of kinin receptors and KLKs, this review highlights their roles, even considering the SARS-CoV-2 effects. Since lung cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stages, our efforts should focus on early diagnosis, validating for example specific KLKs, especially in high-risk populations such as smokers and people exposed to carcinogenic fumes, oil fields, and contaminated workplaces, unexplored fields to investigate. Furthermore, their modulation could be considered as a promising approach in lung cancer therapeutics."

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