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TIPE proteins control directed migration of human T cells by directing GPCR and lipid second messenger signaling

Published date

November 11, 2023


"Tissue infiltration by circulating leukocytes via directed migration (also referred to as chemotaxis) is a common pathogenic mechanism of inflammatory diseases. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for sensing chemokine gradients and directing the movement of leukocytes during immune responses. The TNF-α-induced protein 8-like (TIPE or TNFAIP8L) family of proteins are newly described pilot proteins that control directed migration of murine leukocytes. However, how leukocytes integrate site-specific directional cues, such as chemokine gradients, and utilize GPCR and TIPE proteins to make directional decisions are not well understood. Using both gene knockdown and biochemical methods, we demonstrated here that two human TIPE family members, TNFAIP8 and TIPE2 were essential for directed migration of human CD4+ T cells. T Cells deficient in both of these proteins completely lost their directionality. TNFAIP8 interacted with the Gαi subunit of heterotrimeric (α, β, γ) G-proteins whereas TIPE2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) to spatiotemporally control immune cell migration. Using deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, we established that Gαi interacted with TNFAIP8 through its C terminal amino acids, and that TIPE2 protein interacted with PIP2 and PIP3 through its positively charged amino acids on the α0 helix and at the grip-like entrance. We also discovered that TIPE protein membrane translocation that is crucial for sensing chemokine gradients was dependent on PIP2. Collectively, our work describes a new mechanistic paradigm for how human T cells integrate GPCR and phospholipid signaling pathways to control directed migration. These findings have implications for therapeutically targeting TIPE proteins in human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases."

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