The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses upstream stimuli to regulate numerous cellular functions such as metabolism, growth, and autophagy. The activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is typically observed in human disease and continues to be an important therapeutic target. Understanding the upstream regulators of mTORC1 will provide a crucial link to targeting mTORC1 hyperactivated diseases. In this review, we will discuss the regulation of mTORC1 by upstream stimuli, with a specific focus on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to mTORC1. Significance Statement mTORC1 is a master regulator of many cellular processes and is often hyperactivated in human disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular underpinnings of these pathways will undoubtedly be promising to the mTORC1 field and human disease.
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