Prostaglandin (PG) signaling regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, including body temperature, cardiovascular homeostasis, reproduction, and inflammation. Recent studies have revealed that PGs play pivotal roles in embryo development, ciliogenesis, and organ formation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptor EP4 modulate ciliogenesis by increasing the anterograde intraflagellar transport. Many G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including EP4 are localized in cilia for modulating cAMP signaling under various conditions. During development, PGE2 signaling regulates embryogenesis, hepatocyte differentiation, hematopoiesis, and kidney formation. Prostaglandins are also essential for skeletal muscle repair. This review outlines recent advances in understanding the functions and mechanisms of prostaglandin signaling in ciliogenesis, embryo development, and organ formation.
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