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Itaconate in host inflammation and defense

Published date

March 5, 2024


"Immune cells undergo rapid and extensive metabolic changes during inflammation. In addition to contributing to energetic and biosynthetic demands, metabolites can also function as signaling molecules. Itaconate (ITA) rapidly accumulates to high levels in myeloid cells under infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. This metabolite binds to and regulates the function of diverse proteins intracellularly to influence metabolism, oxidative response, epigenetic modification, and gene expression and to signal extracellularly through binding the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Administration of ITA protects against inflammatory diseases and blockade of ITA production enhances antitumor immunity in preclinical models. In this article, we review ITA metabolism and its regulation, discuss its target proteins and mechanisms, and conjecture a rationale for developing ITA-based therapeutics to treat inflammatory diseases and cancer."

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