"Chemerin is the product of the RARRES2 gene which is secreted as a precursor of 143 amino acids. That precursor is inactive, but proteases from the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, as well as from inflammatory reactions, process the C-terminus of chemerin to first activate it and then subsequently inactivate it. Chemerin can signal via two G protein-coupled receptors, chem1 and chem2, as well as be bound to a third non-signaling receptor, CCRL2. Chemerin is produced by the liver and secreted into the circulation as a precursor, but it is also expressed in some tissues where it can be activated locally. This review discusses the specific tissue expression of the components of the chemerin system, and the role of different proteases in regulating the activation and inactivation of chemerin. Methods of identifying and determining the levels of different chemerin forms in both mass and activity assays are reviewed. The levels of chemerin in circulation are correlated with certain disease conditions, such as patients with obesity or diabetes, leading to the possibility of using chemerin as a biomarker."