Novel Therapies for Cardiometabolic Disease: Recent Findings in Studies with Hormone Peptide-Derived G Protein Coupled Receptor Agonists
"The increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is provoking an important socioeconomic burden mainly in the form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). One successful strategy is the so-called metabolic surgery whose beneficial effects are beyond dietary restrictions and weight loss. One key underlying mechanism behind this surgery is the cooperative improved action of the preproglucagon-derived hormones, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) which exert their functions through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Great success has been reached with therapies based on the GLP-1 receptor monoagonism; therefore, a logical and rational approach is the use of the dual and triagonism of GCPC to achieve complete metabolic homeostasis. The present review describes novel findings regarding the complex biology of the preproglucagon-derived hormones, their signaling, and the drug development of their analogues, especially those acting as dual and triagonists. Moreover, the main investigations into animal models and ongoing clinical trials using these unimolecular dual and triagonists are included which have demonstrated their safety, efficacy, and beneficial effects on the CV system. These therapeutic strategies could greatly impact the treatment of CVD with unprecedented benefits which will be revealed in the next years."