Updated: Sep 22, 2022
"G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors that serve as the most important drug targets. Classically, GPCR internalization has been considered to lead to receptor desensitization. However, many studies over the past decade have reported that internalized membrane receptors can trigger distinct signal activation. The "internalized activation" provides a completely new understanding for the receptor internalization, the mechanism of physiology/pathology and novel drug targets for precision medicine. GPCR internalization undergoes a series of strict regulations, especially by posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here, this review summarizes different PTMs in GPCR internalization and analyzes their significance in GPCR internalization dynamics, internalization routes, postinternalization fates, and related diseases, which will offer new insights into the regulatory mechanism of GPCR signaling and novel drug targets for precision medicine."