Odorant G protein-coupled receptors as potential therapeutic targets for adult diffuse gliomas: a systematic analysis and review
Odorant receptors (ORs) account for about 60% of all human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). OR expression outside of the nose has functions distinct from odor perception, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders including brain diseases and cancers. Glioma is the most common adult malignant brain tumor and requires novel therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcomes. Here, we outlined the expression of brain ORs and investigated OR expression levels in glioma. Although most ORs were not ubiquitously expressed in gliomas, a subset of ORs displayed glioma subtype-specific expression. Moreover, through systematic survival analysis on OR genes, OR51E1 (mouse Olfr558) was identified as a potential biomarker of unfavorable overall survival, and OR2C1 (mouse Olfr15) was identified as a potential biomarker of favorable overall survival in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type glioma. In addition to transcriptomic analysis, mutational profiles revealed that somatic mutations in OR genes were detected in ＞ 60% of glioma samples. OR5D18 (mouse Olfr1155) was the most frequently mutated OR gene, and OR5AR1 (mouse Olfr1019) showed IDH wild-type-specific mutation. Based on this systematic analysis and review of the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of ORs in glioma, we suggest that ORs are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioma. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(12): 601-607].