Use of CRISPR/Cas9-edited HEK293 cells reveals that both conventional and novel protein kinase C isozymes are involved in mGlu5a receptor internalization
"The internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be regulated by PKC. However, most tools available to study the contribution of PKC isozymes have considerable limitations, including a lack of selectivity. In this study, we generated and characterized human embryonic kidney 293A (HEK293A) cell lines devoid of conventional or novel PKC isozymes (ΔcPKC and ΔnPKC) and employ these to investigate the contribution of PKC isozymes in the internalization of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5). Direct activation of PKC and mutation of rat mGlu5a Ser901, a PKC-dependent phosphorylation site in the receptor C-tail, both showed that PKC isozymes facilitate approximately 40% of the receptor internalization. Nonetheless, we determined that mGlu5a internalization was not altered upon the loss of cPKCs or nPKCs. This indicates that isozymes from both classes are involved, compensate for the absence of the other class, and thus fulfill dispensable functions. Additionally, using the Gαq/11 inhibitor YM-254890, GPCR kinase 2 and 3 (GRK2 and GRK3) KO cells, and a receptor containing a mutated putative adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) interaction motif, we demonstrate that internalization of rat mGlu5a is mediated by Gαq/11 proteins (77% of the response), GRK2 (27%), and AP-2 (29%), but not GRK3. Our PKC KO cell lines expand the repertoire of KO HEK293A cell lines available to research GPCR pharmacology. Moreover, since pharmacological tools to study PKC isozymes generally lack specificity and/or potency, we present the PKC KO cell lines as more specific research tools to investigate PKC-mediated aspects of cell biology."