GPR84 signaling promotes intestinal mucosal inflammation via enhancing NLRP3 inflammasome activation
GPR84 signaling promotes intestinal mucosal inflammation via enhancing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages
"The putative medium-chain free fatty acid receptor GPR84 is a G protein-coupled receptor primarily expressed in myeloid cells that constitute the innate immune system, including neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages in the periphery and microglia in the brain. The fact that GPR84 expression in leukocytes is remarkably increased under acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNFα suggests that it may play a role in the development of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. Here we demonstrate that GPR84 is highly upregulated in inflamed colon tissues of active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Infiltrating GPR84+ macrophages are significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of both the UC patients and the mice with colitis. Consistently, GPR84-/- mice are resistant to the development of colitis induced by DSS. GPR84 activation imposes pro-inflammatory properties in colonic macrophages through enhancing NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while the loss of GPR84 prevents the M1 polarization and properties of proinflammatory macrophages. CLH536, a novel GPR84 antagonist discovered by us, suppresses colitis by reducing the polarization and function of pro-inflammatory macrophages. These results define a unique role of GPR84 in innate immune cells and intestinal inflammation, and suggest that GPR84 may serve as a potential drug target for the treatment of UC."