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Successful prednisolone or calcimimetic treatment of acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia caused...

October 2022


Successful prednisolone or calcimimetic treatment of acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia caused by biased allosteric CaSR autoantibodies


"Biased agonism is a frontier field in GPCR research. Acquired hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (AHH) is a rare disease caused by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) autoantibodies, to date, showing either simple blocking or biased properties (i.e., stimulatory or blocking effects on different downstream signaling pathways). This emphasizes the importance of the Gi/o (pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, whose βγ subunits activate multiple signals, including ERK1/2) in regulating parathyroid hormone secretion. We here describe 3 patients with symptomatic AHH who shared characteristics with the 2 cases we previously reported as follows: (a) elderly (74-87 years at diagnosis), (b) male, (c) unexpectedly showed no other autoimmune diseases, (d) showed spontaneously fluctuating Ca levels from approximately normal to near fatally high ranges, (e) acute exacerbations could be successfully treated with prednisolone and/or calcimimetics, (f) the presence of CaSR autoantibodies that operated as biased allosteric modulators of CaSR, and (g) were likely to be conformational (i.e., recognizing and, thereby, stabilizing a unique active conformation of CaSR that activates Gq/11, activating phosphatidylinositol turnover, but not Gi/o). Our observations with these prominent commonalities may provide new insights into the phenotype and characteristics of AHH and the mechanisms by which the biased agonism of GPCRs operate."



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