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GPCR kinase phosphorylation of distal C-tail sites specifies βarrestin1-mediated signaling by...

September 2022

"G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) and arrestins mediate GPCR desensitization, internalization, and signaling. The spatial pattern of GPCR phosphorylation is predicted to trigger these discrete GRK and arrestin-mediated functions. Here, we provide evidence that distal carboxyl-terminal tail (C-tail), but not proximal, phosphorylation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 specifies βarrestin1 (βarr1)-dependent signaling. We demonstrate by pharmacologic inhibition of GRK2/3-mediated phosphorylation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 coupled with site-directed mutagenesis and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approaches that distal, not proximal, C-tail phosphorylation sites are required for recruitment of the adaptor protein STAM1 (signal-transducing adaptor molecule) to βarr1 and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that GPCRs that have similarly positioned C-tail phosphoresidues are also able to recruit STAM1 to βarr1. However, although necessary for some GPCRs, we found that distal C-tail sites might not be sufficient to specify recruitment of STAM1 to βarr1 for other GPCRs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that distal C-tail phosphorylation sites specify GRK-βarrestin-mediated signaling by CXCR4 and other GPCRs."

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